Customer Experience

Making the Company Human

by Peter Leppik on Fri, 2017-12-08 14:21

If you are one of the lucky few who plunked down the equivalent of a four-year degree to buy a Tesla Model X, you probably already know about your car's special holiday light show.

For those who haven't heard about this before, here's the video. Model X owners can press a special sequence of buttons to get their car to flash its lights and open and close the doors in time to holiday music. It's like one of those over-the-top Christmas light displays, except for your car.

Most car owners--and I'm going to guess most auto industry executives--will probably think, "Why the heck does anyone need their car to perform a musical light show?"

But evidently that's not what Elon Musk thought. Because at Tesla, it's apparently completely rational to invest a meaningful amount of design and engineering resources in making the car do something completely useless and utterly frivolous just because it's cool. We know this because the light show isn't the only wacky feature programmed into Teslas: there's a whole web site devoted to Tesla's easter eggs.

There's a lesson here about how the customer experience plays into a company's brand. Most companies don't spend much time and effort being playful or frivolous. But for most people, that time spent having fun, doing things just because, is very important. It's what we enjoy most, it's what we wish we had more of, and in some ways it's what makes us human. Play is even recognized as an important part of mental health.

So when a company shows that it, too, can be playful, it helps humanize the company. It shows that the business isn't just a giant faceless bureaucracy, but rather people with personality. And that makes us like the company more.

The Most Important Metric in CX

by Peter Leppik on Fri, 2017-10-06 15:36

The Minneapolis Chapter Meeting of the CXPA featured a panel discussion this week for Customer Experience Day. Four Customer Experience luminaries from the Twin Cities area fielded questions from a packed audience for the better part of an hour, but the very last question stood out.

"What is the most important Customer Experience metric?"

This prompted chin scratching and discussion of the relative merits of common survey metrics like NPS and Customer Effort, and general consensus that no one metric is ever going to give the whole picture, as well as the important fact that if you're focusing on finding the right metric then you're probably doing CX wrong.

I was not part of the panel (I'm not nearly luminous enough), but if I had been, my answer would have been different. Because I believe there is one metric that stands out above all others in measuring the progress of a company's Customer Experience efforts and predicting future success in harnessing all the financial and market benefits of being a customer-centric organization.

My metric, the One Metric to Rule Them All, is simple: The amount of attention a company's C-Suite leadership pays to Customer Experience.

I admit that I haven't actually tested this metric in the real world. Nor do I know anyone else who has--though I will cheerfully buy a beer for anyone cheeky enough to suggest performing a time-tracking study on their company's C-Suite executives.

But everyone I talked to agreed that a measurement of senior leadership attention is likely to outperform NPS, CSAT, Customer Effort, and just about any other customer-facing metric you might care to devise. Leadership focus on Customer Experience is the most critical element of a successful CX program: if you've got the C-Suite pulling for CX, everything else tends to fall in place. But if the leadership is indifferent, then the whole program is going to be an uphill struggle.

The other piece of this is the leadership needs to be directly paying attention, and not just spending money and delegating CX to a team. In most large organizations attention is more scarce than money, and it quickly becomes apparent what the company actually cares about and what they merely think they should be doing.

So if you want to gauge the success of your CX program, there are many survey metrics you can use. But the truest measure will be to look inside and see how much time and attention you're getting from the most senior leadership.

Customer Experience is Driven by Core Values

by Peter Leppik on Fri, 2017-07-21 13:26

It seems that corporate culture may soon be having a moment. An article in Recode yesterday by Patrick Quinlan highlights the many recent high-profile examples of corporate misbehavior, such as Wells Fargo to Uber, and argues that the root cause of these problems is that many companies have viewed ethics through the lens of compliance rather than core values.

The problem, in Quinlan's view, is that for too long many companies have lacked any core values other than making money. Not breaking the law is also in there somewhere, but as a secondary consideration. You can see how this leads to problems. If a company's core values are "make money" and "don't break the law," but you only get fired if you don't make money, then employees are going to break the law and turn a blind eye when their peers and managers are a little loose with the legalities. This applies all the way from the C-suite to the salesman, except that the salesman is more likely to get blamed with misbehavior comes to light.

Customer Experience, like ethical behavior, is also driven by a company's core values. You hear most any CX expert talk about "Leadership" as one of the core components of success in Customer Experience, and this is what the Leadership is all about.

Effective leadership in Customer Experience means making the customer part of the mission and core values of the company. It's not just the business school mechanics of structure, governance, incentives, and metrics. It's about genuinely caring about how the company serves customers.

I don't know if Quinan is right, and that we are going to see more companies reevaluating their core values. I agree that the lack of any deep moral compass in most large businesses (other than "maximize profitability") is a huge problem today, and not just in the areas of not abusing customers or employees. I see it in the way that global tax evasion has become an accepted way of doing business, and the way some enormous companies don't seem to care whether or not their employees have to choose between eating, paying rent, or visiting the doctor.

So I do hope that this is going to become a greater part of the conversation. Because if a company can align itself with the right set of core values, many other things will be a lot easier, from Customer Experience to staying out of legal trouble.

Desire Paths in Journey Maps

by Peter Leppik on Fri, 2017-06-23 14:26

Desire Path
People often don't behave the way you expect them to. Customer feedback helps you uncover the disconnect between what you think customers do, and what they're really doing.

It's tempting, in a journey mapping project, to skip the time-consuming and sometimes expensive process of asking customers what their actual experience was in completing a particular journey.

This is a mistake. We constantly discover that in the real world people behave differently than we expect. If your journey mapping process is only gathering data from company insiders, you're almost guaranteed to get a skewed perspective. Insiders understand how the system works, and that makes it hard to see where an outsider customer might find things confusing or illogical.

Even if you're gathering behavioral data, chances are you're missing important parts of the puzzle. The best web analytics in the world won't tell you why customers do certain things, they'll only tell you that real customers are behaving in ways you can't easily explain. And in the real world, lots of customer behavior won't be captured for a variety of reasons.

This is illustrated nicely by the idea of the Desire Path. A Desire Path is one of those trampled paths that people create by the routes they actually follow, rather than the paths the designers expect them to use.

A desire path is what happens when people find their own way, rather than following the path that's been laid out for them.

Desire paths happen all the time in Customer Experience. Every time a customer hits "zero" instead of cooperating with the IVR menus, that's a desire path. Companies may try to corral customers into certain behaviors, but usually wind up opening desire paths in the face of unhappy, frustrated customers.

The goal of most journey mapping projects should be to document actual customer journeys, as opposed to the journeys you want or hope your customers to take (the want or hope part usually comes later). You are, in essence, documenting the desire paths your customers are following when they interact with you.

In the customer experience world we usually can't just look to see where the grass is trampled, so we have to ask customers where they actually went, why they chose that route, and how they felt about it.

Without customer feedback, your journey map will only show the sidewalks. 

Incentives Run Amok

by Peter Leppik on Fri, 2017-05-12 11:41

Here are three stories which have one thing in common:

  1. Several customers have reported being "fired" from their Ford dealer after providing less-than-perfect ratings on a customer survey. One customer, when he contacted his dealer about buying another new vehicle after his original purchase was told to go away: "Since that survey actually cost myself and the dealership money from Ford, I will have to personally pass on your offer."
  2. Wells Fargo bankers created millions of fraudulent accounts in order to meet sales and cross-selling quotas. To date, the bank has paid $185 million in fines, and the former leaders of the company have personally had to return tens of millions of dollars in bonuses.
  3. Walmart stores across the country have absurdly obsolete technology products on their shelves, often priced at close to the original retail price from ten or more years ago. Walmart employees explained to the Consumerst blog that discounting obsolete items counts against their stores' financial targets, but unsold inventory does not, giving store managers no reason to try to clear outdated products from the shelves.

All three of these stories involve incentive systems that have run amok, leading employees to do things that are harming the company. What's more, most employees at these companies probably understand that they're doing the wrong thing, but they feel like they have no choice but to go along with the broken system.

Meanwhile, senior leadership is either unaware of the problem or (as is alleged to have happened at Wells Fargo) actively punishes employees who try to raise the red flag. The end result is that the numbers look good even while the underlying situation in the company gets worse and worse.

How do companies get in this situation? I see three key factors:

  • An over-reliance on a few specific metrics. Metrics and goals are important (you couldn't manage a large organization without them), but they are only a distorted reflection of the underlying state of the business. It's a mistake to believe that metrics, by themselves, tell the whole story. Leadership needs to stay connected to what's going on in the front lines of the organization.
  • Overly rigid goals. Bright-line targets are easy to administer and seem fair on the surface, but the real world tends to be a more complicated place. It's better to focus on an employees overall pattern of behavior, even if it's harder to quantify, than on whether some particular metric meets an arbitrary threshold.
  • Punishing failure rather than rewarding success. There's no metric that can't be gamed, and punishing employees for failing to meet their targets forces them to choose between cheating the system or accepting the punishment. Because most people react much more strongly to punishment than an equivalent reward (think about the difference between getting a $100 bonus vs. having your pay docked $100), punishing failure can encourage employees to do whatever it takes--even if they know it's wrong--to avoid being punished.

There's a strain of business culture that says an executive's job should be to set rigid goals and deal mercilessly with those who fall short. My view, however, is that true leadership means understanding what's really going on deep inside the company and ensuring that everyone is pulling in the right direction. Goals and metrics are just one tool for this, and an imperfect one at that. And when used improperly, they can lead to some very bad results. 

Random CX Thoughts for a Wednesday

by vocalabs on Wed, 2017-03-08 15:41

Just some random Customer Experience musings on a Wednesday afternoon:

  • Airlines won't improve their customer experience as long as customers are willing to pay extra for upgrades.
  • Should Facebook be able to enforce its "Terms of Service" agreement even if it knows that almost none of its users actually read the "Terms of Service" before clicking the box that says they read it?
  • Most business processes work to hide the fact that each customer is unique and individual.
  • Online "Terms of Service" agreements just teach people that sometimes the easiest way to get what you want is to lie.
  • In my pocket I carry a supercomputer wirelessly connected to most of human knowledge and society, and the battery only lasts one day. To me this is annoying, not miraculous.
  • Humans share 98% of our DNA with primates who shake tree branches and fling poo at each other to establish their dominance hierarchy. I'm not sure what this has to do with CX, but it does seem to explain a lot.
  • Almost no company wants to create a bad customer experience, and yet almost all of them do.
  • The less contact you have with customers, the harder it is to know what they want.

Nerdview

by Peter Leppik on Fri, 2017-02-10 14:40

Language Log has coined the word "Nerdview" to describe the common situation of writing in technical terms for a non-technical audience. Nerdviews are all around us, to the point where we hardly even notice them anymore.

For example, asking you to input the "CVV2" on your credit card to process an online payment is a classic nerdview, since unless you are in the payment industry you would have no reason to know what a CVV2 is or how to find it. This is so common that most people have figured out that the CVV2 is the three-digit security code on the back of a credit card--even though most cards don't label the code "CVV2" or give any other indication of what it's for.

Nerdviews almost always lead to a worse customer experience, and should be avoided whenever possible. But that can be a challenge because oftentimes the people who have to decide how to communicate important information to the general public are the same ones who are experts in their own narrow field. It can be hard to step outside your expertise and think like a novice.

My personal favorite nerdview was one I encountered many years ago at Vocalabs. One of our clients was an insurance company, and in their automated customer service system one of the prompts asked, "Do you want to know your withdrawal value or your redemption value?" Unless you are in the insurance business, chances are you don't know that a life insurance policy can have two different values, much less what they mean.

Finding and avoiding nerdviews is almost always worthwhile, but it can be a challenge. Nerdviews tend to become invisible to us once we figure out what they mean. Humans are adaptable, and even if you were mystified the first time a government form asked you for your "DOB", chances are the next time you remembered that it meant "Date of Birth" and hardly even noticed.

Here are some tips for uncovering nerdviews:

  • Don't assume your audience thinks like you, or that you can put yourself in your shoes. Get feedback from actual customers or users.
  • Remember that people adapt to nerdviews quickly, but may ignore or overlook important information if it's not clear. Don't assume that you're communicating well just because your customers or users seem to have figured things out.
  • Plain language is usually better than technical precision. If you feel compelled to be technically precise when communicating to a non-technical audience, you may be trapped in a nerdview.

And remember that even if you don't think you're a nerd, we are all nerds about something. Remember your audience, and stay away from the nerdview.

Customer Experience Non-Trends for 2017

by Peter Leppik on Thu, 2017-01-05 16:24

It's the beginning of a new year, which means it's time for pundits and prognosticators to pull out their crystal balls and make predictions about the twelve months to come.

Bruce Temkin, for example, has identified "Purpose" as the Customer Experience theme of 2017.

Who am I to disagree?

But in my view, such trend articles miss the bigger picture, which is that the important facts of the Customer Experience profession will be pretty much the same in 2017 as they were in 2016 and earlier years. These are the non-trends, the things that don't change, and most of them are more important than the trends.

So here I present my Customer Experience Non-Trends for 2017. Not only are most of these non-trends more important to the average CX professional than the Trends, you can read these safe in the knowledge that in January 2018 I can just republish the same article with a different date, just as this year's article is the same as my 2016 Non-Trends article with a new date and a few details changed.

Non-Trend 1: Engaged Leadership Is The Single Most Important Element in CX

The companies delivering a great customer experience almost always have leadership actively engaged in continuously trying to deliver a better experience. Conversely, companies where leadership views CX as a one-time project, or something to delegate, generally don't succeed in delivering a superior experience.

The lesson here is simple: if you want to improve the customer experience in your organization, the most important thing you can do is get the senior leadership to care and make it a personal priority.

Non-Trend 2: Great CX Is About Getting a Thousand Things Right

Sweat the details. A grand strategy or a new piece of technology will not, by themselves, move the needle on your customer experience (though the right strategy and tools definitely make the job easier).

Unfortunately, "sweat the details" is not a sexy message and it doesn't help sell software and services. Many vendors make the empty promise that their solution will, by itself, transform your CX effort. Don't believe it. There is no magic bullet.

Non-Trend 3: Customer Experience Professionals Often Have a Tough Job

The field of Customer Experience has made great strides over the last decade or so, but it's still not easy. We've finally gotten to the point where most companies will at least say that the Customer Experience is a priority, but many of them have yet to internalize it. The leadership doesn't yet care enough to dedicate the needed resources, or they think that because they have a CX team the problem is solved and they can mostly ignore it.

So in a lot of places, the role of the CX professional will continue to revolve around getting leadership attention, finding the easy wins, and internal evangelism. This, unfortunately, is not likely to change any time soon.

Non-Trend 4: Great CX Drives Customer and Employee Passion, Which Creates Better CX

The sweet spot of customer experience is when your whole organization is focused on creating a better experience for customers, which makes customers want to do more business with you, and that makes employees want to help customers even more. Customer Experience becomes a positive feedback loop.

The unacknowledged truth is that most employees genuinely want to do a good job and have a positive impact on their customers. It's one of the most satisfying things we can do in our careers. A strong focus on CX creates not just more satisfied customers but also more satisfied employees.

Here's hoping for a terrific 20162017!

Technology for the Sake of Technology

by Peter Leppik on Fri, 2016-12-16 11:25

For $1,500 you can apparently buy a "smart" toaster oven that uses sensors, AI, deep learning, and other buzzwords to automatically recognize what you're cooking and figure out how to optimally cook whatever you put in it, and send you a message on your cellphone when it's done.

Except, perhaps, not so much. According to a review in Fast Company of the June toaster oven, not only does the product not work as advertised, even if it did work it would be much more complicated and difficult to use than an ordinary "dumb" appliance. Where an ordinary toaster oven is fairly simple to use (set temperature, add food, set timer, remove food), using the smart version requires navigating multiple menus, answering questions about how you want your food cooked, and hoping that you and the oven guessed the right settings. Worse, the oven's software will update itself from time to time (to make it smarter of course), so once you've figured out the settings to toast your toast exactly the way you want it, you could find that the next morning it cooks differently because of an overnight update.

This is a classic example of applying technology solely for the sake of technology, and just like in most such instances the result is a much worse customer experience than what you got with the old, "dumb" product at a multiple of the price.

Improving the customer experience requires taking a customer-centric approach, rather than a technology-centric approach. Begin with the customer's journey. Identify the pain points and roadblocks. Find ways to improve the experience--which might or might not involve technology--that removes those problem areas.

Some will argue that this incremental approach won't lead to revolutionary change. As Henry Ford once (supposedly) said, if he'd asked his customers what they wanted, they would have said a faster horse. But the fact is that the overwhelming majority of improvements come through slow and steady refinements to the products and services that are already out there. Radical innovation, like what led to the first iPhone, is rare and often fails.

When you take the technology-centric approach, and try to apply new technology to an old problem just for the sake of applying new technology, more often than not the result is going to be an expensive failure. Rather than solving actual customer problems, you're more likely to invent new problems that don't really exist just so you can apply the technology to solve them.

As proof, all you need to do is read through the recipes on the website for the June toaster oven. Despite the product's hefty price tag and advanced features, five of the ten recipes instruct the user to do nothing more than set the oven temperature and cook for a certain number of minutes, functionality that's available in any ordinary $25 toaster oven for one sixtieth the price. Not even the June's manufacturer could find more than a handful of recipes that used (not necessarily required) all the product's advanced features.

Let Me Put my Customer Hat On

by Peter Leppik on Wed, 2016-11-16 13:51

To create a good customer experience you need to be able to put yourself in the customer's shoes.

But you also need to be grounded in what actual customers expect and experience.

When You Assume...

When you put your "customer hat" on, are you trying to come to a genuine understanding of specific customer issues and feedback, or are you imagining what a customer might think based on your own assumptions?

As the old saying goes, when you "assume" you make an "ass of U and me."

It's tempting to try to think about the customer's perspective, but customers have a very different experience than employees. Crossing the chasm between an insider's perspective and a customer's perspective is almost impossible without customer feedback. For example:

  • Employees understand how the company works, and customers don't.
  • Employees understand industry jargon, and customers don't.
  • Employees know why certain policies exist, and customers don't.
  • Employees have experience navigating their company's bureaucracy, and customers don't.

These differences in perspective can create blind spots when you try to understand the customer's viewpoint.

Understanding the Customer's Experience

To really put yourself in the customer's shoes, you should:

  • Begin with customer feedback, not you or your team's ideas of what customers are thinking.
  • Take the view that each customer's perspective is reasonable, and trust what they're telling you.
  • Expect that different customers have different experiences. When customers have conflicting opinions, both are equally valid.
  • Work to understand why some customers might feel differently about your customer experience than you do.
  • Understand what parts of your customer experience may be painful to customers even though they make sense to people inside your organization.

This puts the voice of the customer front and center where it belongs. Too often, companies will take the opposite approach: beginning with their own preconceived ideas, they imagine what they think customers want and then collect customer feedback to validate their opinions.

And while customers and employees may agree about many customer experience problems--things that are painful to customers are often also painful to employees--the insider perspective is usually incomplete.

So when you put that customer hat on, make sure you're not putting it on backwards.