What is Net Promoter Score (NPS)?

Net Promoter Score is a popular survey metric based on the question:

Based on your overall experience with (Company), how likely would you be to recommend our (products or services) to a friend or colleague?

Participants are asked to respond on a scale from zero to ten, where zero is "Very Unlikely" and ten is "Very Likely." It's common to see slight variations in the wording of the question.

Customers who answer 9 or 10 are called "Promoters," those who answer 7 or 8 are called "Passive," and customers who give zero through six are "Detractors."

The Net Promoter Score itself is simply the percentage of Promoters minus the percentage of Detractors, and it measures the overall strength of customers' relationships with the company.

The Net Promoter question is usually followed up with an open-ended question asking the customer to explain why they gave the score they gave. It's common to include the Net Promoter question along with other questions on the survey to ask about more specific aspects of the customer's experience, but some advocates of Net Promoter claim that additional questions are not necessary.

NPS has the advantage of being an extremely standardized way to measure the overall health of a customer relationship, and there is more benchmark data available for NPS than any other survey question. However, there are other survey questions which may provide additional insights or be more relevant depending on the goals of the survey. For more on this, please see How Do I Choose the Best Survey Metric?

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